Prof. Xiaogang Liu 

Provost’s Chair Professor                Phone: (65) 65161352
National University of Singapore   Fax: (65) 67791691   
3 Science Drive 3                                                     
Department of Chemistry Email:
Singapore 117543



Supermolecular coordination chemistry, catalysis, nanomaterials synthesis and nanostructure patterning, chemical sensors and biosensors, nanophotonics, scanning probe microscopes.  


July 2018 Provost’s Chair Professor, Department of Chemistry

National University of Singapore

January 2017 Professor, Department of Chemistry

National University of Singapore 

July 2011 Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry

National University of Singapore 

January 2011-18 Senior Scientist, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering

Agency for Science, Technology and Research 

Dec 2006 – June 2011 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry

National University of Singapore 

Sept 2004 – Nov 2006 Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology (with Professor Francesco Stellacci) 


Sept 2004 Ph.D., Inorganic Chemistry (with Professor Chad A. Mirkin)

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A.

Synthesis, Reactivity, and Molecular Recognition Studies of a New Class of Metallocyclophanes 

Sept 1999 M.S., Chemistry (with Professor John W. Sibert)

East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, U.S.A. 

Wurster’s Cryptands: A New Class of Redox-Active Macrocycles 

1992 -1996 B.Eng., Chemical Engineering

Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China 


IET A F Harvey Engineering Prize (Finalist 2019)

Chang Jiang Scholar (Northwestern Polytechnical University 2018)

Outstanding Researcher Award (NUS 2017)

President’s Science Award (Singapore 2016)

Faculty of Science Outstanding Scientist Award (NUS 2014)

41st International Conference on Coordination Chemistry Rising Stars Lectureship Award (Singapore 2014)

15th Asian Chemical Congress Asian Rising Stars Lectureship Award (Singapore 2013)

Department of Chemistry Outstanding Chemist Award (NUS 2012)

Chemical Society Reviews Emerging Investigator Lectureship Award (RSC 2012)

Guest Professorship (Shandong University 2012)

Taiwan National Science Council Lectureship Award (2012)

Young Researcher Award (NUS 2011)

BASF-SNIC Award in Materials Chemistry (Singapore 2011)

Guest Professorship (Soochow University 2010)

JSPS Scientist Exchange Program (2010)

Department of Chemistry Young Chemist Award (NUS 2009)

Guest Professorship (Hangzhou Normal University 2008)

Faculty of Science Young Scientist Award (NUS 2008)

Young Investigator Award (NUS 2006)

Materials Day Best Poster Presentation (MIT 2006)

Materials Research Society Outstanding Graduate Student Award (Northwestern 2002)

Omicron Delta Kappa (East Carolina 1999)

Burroughs Wellcome Fund Fellowship in Synthetic Organic Chemistry (East Carolina 1998)


Associate Editor: Science Bulletin, Journal of Luminescence, Nanoscale

Editorial Board: Research,  Journal of Luminescence, The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, COSMOS, Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, Chemistry–An Asian Journal, Fluorescent Materials (De Gruyter Open), ChemNanoMat, Advanced Optical Materials, Nanoscale Horizons, Nanoscale Advances.

Book series editor: RSC Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 

Manuscript reviews for: Advanced Materials, Advanced Healthcare Materials, Advanced Functional Materials, Advanced Optical Materials, Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, ACS Nano, ACS Photonics, Analytical Chemistry, Angewandte Chemie, Applied Physics B, Applied Surface Science, Biomaterials, Biosensors & Bioelectronics, Catalysis Letters, Catalysis Today, ChemPhyChem, Chemical Reviews, Chemical Science, Chemical Society Reviews, Chemistry–An Asian Journal, Crystal Engineering Design, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, CrystEngComm, Dalton Transaction, Environmental Science & Technology, European Journal of Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, IEEE Sensors, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Journal of Luminescence, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Journal of Physical Chemistry, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Lab on A Chip, Luminescence, Materials Research Bulletin, Nanomedicine, Nano Energy, Nano Letters, Nanoscale, Nanotechnology, Nature, Nature Chemistry, Nature Communications, Nature Materials, Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Photonics, Nature Protocols, NPG Asia Materials, Optics Communications, Optical Express, Scientific Reports, Small, Tetrahedron Letters etc. 

Member, Materials Research Society (2001-) Member, American Chemical Society (1998-) Member, Singapore National Institute of Chemistry (2008-) 


[184] D. Mao, F. Hu, Z. Yi, K. Kenry, S. Xu, S. Yan, Z. Luo, W. Wu, Z. Wang, D. Kong, X. Liu, and B. Liu, “AIEgen-coupled upconversion nanoparticles eradicate solid tumors through dual-mode ROS activation,” Science Advances 2020, 6, eabb2712.

[183] Z. Luo, M. J. Y. Ang, S. Y. Chan, Z. Yi, Y. Y. Goh, S. Yan,… H. Zhang, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Combating the Coronavirus Pandemic: Early Detection, Medical Treatment, and a Concerted Effort by the Global Community,” Research 2020, 6925296.

[182] C. D. S. Brites, B. Zhuang, M. L. Debasu, D. Ding, X. Qin, F. E Maturi, W. W. Y. Lim, D. W. Soh, J. Rocha, Z. Yi, X. Liu, and L. D. Carlos, “Decoding a Percolation Phase Transition of Water at ~330 K with a Nanoparticle Ruler,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2020, Early view

[181] H. Al-Nashash, S. Luo, X. Liu, and A. H. All, “Trading baseline with forelimbs somatosensory evoked potential for longitudinal analysis inthoracic transection spinal cord injury,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2020, 343, 108858.

[180] C. Cui, G. Du, K. Zhang, T. An, B. Li, X. Liu, Z. Liu, “Co3O4 nanoparticles anchored in MnO2 nanorods as efficient oxygen reduction reaction catalyst for metal-air batteries,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2020, 814, 152239.

[179] H. Koua, Z. Liua, B. Zhua, D. K. Machariaa, S. Ahmeda, B. Wub, M. Zhua, X. Liu, Z. Chen, “Recyclable CNT-coupled cotton fabrics for low-cost and efficient desalination of seawater under sunlight,” Desalination 2020, 462, 29-38.

[178] S. Yan, Z. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Wang, J. Tao, C. Gong, X. Liu, “Improving Cancer Immunotherapy Outcomes using Biomaterials,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, Early view. 

[177] Z. Chen, G. Gallo, V. A. Sawant, T. Zhang, M. Zhu, L. Liang, A. Chanthapally, G. Bolla, H. S. Quah, X. Liu, K. P. Loh, R. E. Dinnebier, Q.-H. Xu, J. J Vittal, “Giant Enhancement of Second Harmonic Generation Accompanied by the Structural Transformation of 7-Fold to 8-Fold Interpenetrated Metal–Organic Framework (MOF),” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, 131, 2–8.

[176] J. Chen, B. Luo, Q. Chen, F. Li, Y. Guo, T. Wu, P. Peng, X. Qin, G. Wu, M. Cui, L. Liu, L. Chu, B. Jiang, Y. Li, X. Gong, Y. Chai, Y. Yang, Y. Chen, W. Huang, X. Liu, M. Li, Localized Electrons Enhanced Ion Transport for Ultrafast Electrochemical Energy Storage,” Advanced Materials 2020, 32, 1905578.

[175] L. Liang, W. Yan, X. Qin, X. Peng, H. Feng, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, L. Liu, Y. Han, Q. Xu, J. Qu, X. Liu, “Designing sub-2 nm organosilica nanohybrids for far-field super-resolution imaging,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, 59, 746-751   

[174] Y. Wu, J. Xu, X. Liu, “Controlled patterning of upconversion nanocrystals through capillary force,” Journal of Rare Earths, 2020, 38, 546.

[173] S. Luo, H. Xu, Y. Zuo, X. Liu, A. H. All, “A Review of Functional Electrical Stimulation Treatment in Spinal Cord Injury,” NeuroMolecular Medicine 2020, 1-17.

[172] A. H. All, X. Zeng, D. B. L. Teh, Z. Yi, A. Prasad, T. Ishizuka, N. Thakor, Y. Hiromu, and X. Liu, “Expanding the Toolbox of Upconversion Nanoparticles for In Vivo Optogenetics and Neuromodulation,” Advanced Materials 2019, 31, 1803474.

[171] M. Wang, Y. Han, X. Yu, L. Liang, H. Chang, D. C. Yeo, C. Wiraja, M. L. Wee, L. Liu, X. Liu, C. Xu, “Upconversion Nanoparticle Powered Microneedle Patches for Transdermal Delivery of siRNA,” Advanced Healthcare Materials 2019, 9, 1900635.

[170] X. Qin, L. Shen, L. Liang, S. Han, Z. Yi, X. Liu, “Suppression of Defect-Induced Quenching via Chemical Potential Tuning: A Theoretical Solution for Enhancing Lanthanide Luminescence,”  The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2019, 123, 11151-11161. 

[169] R. A. S. Ferreira, S. F. H. Correia, A., Liu, X. Monguzzi, F. Meinardi, “Spectral converters for photovoltaics – What’s ahead,” Materials Today, 2019, 33, 105-121.

[168] E. T. Poh, X. Liu, C. H. Sow, “Laser-Guided Microcanvas Printing of Multicolor Upconversion Nanoparticles on Molybdenum Disulfide Monolayer,” Advanced Materials Interfaces 2019, 1901673.

[167] K. Zheng, K. Y. Loh, Y. Wang, Q. Chen, J. Fan, T. Jung, S. H. Nam, Y. D. Suh, X. Liu, “Recent advances in upconversion nanocrystals: Expanding the kaleidoscopic toolbox for emerging applications,” Nano Today 2019, 29, 100797.

[166] T. T. V. Nguyen, X. Xie, J. Xu, Y. Wu, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Plasmonic bimetallic nanodisk arrays for DNA conformation sensing,” Nanoscale 2019, 11,19291–19296.

[165] Y, Wu, M. J. Y. Ang, M. Sun, B. Huang, X. Liu, “Expanding the Toolbox for Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 2019, 52, 383002.

[164] M. Zhang, R. Song, Y. Liu, Z. Yi, X. Meng, J. Zhang, Z. Tang, Z. Yao, Y. Liu, X, Liu, and W. Bu, “Calcium-overload-mediated tumor therapy by calcium peroxide nanoparticles,” Chem 2019, 5, 2171-2182.

[163] Z. Feng, D. Hu, L. Liang, J. Xu, Y. Cao, Q. Zhan, B.-O. Guan, X. Liu, and X. Li, “Laser-Splashed Plasmonic Nanocrater for Ratiometric Upconversion Regulation and Encryption,” Advanced Optical Materials 2019, 7, 1900610.

[162] Z. Yi, Z. Luo, N. D. Barth, X. Meng, H. Liu, W. Bu, A. All, M. Vendrell, X. Liu, “In Vivo Tumor Visualization through MRI Off-On Switching of NaGdF4–CaCO3 Nanoconjugates,” Advanced Materials 2019, 31, 1901851.

[161] S. Yan, X. Zeng, Y. Tang, B.-F. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Liu, “Activating Antitumor Immunity and Antimetastatic Effect Through Polydopamine-Encapsulated Core–Shell Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Advanced Materials 2019, 31, 190582.

[160] Z. Liu, B. Wu, B. Zhu, Z. Chen, M. Zhu, X. Liu, “Continuously Producing Watersteam and Concentrated Brine from Seawater by Hanging Photothermal Fabrics under Sunlight,” Advanced Functional Materials 2019, 29, 1905485.

[159] P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, R. P. Peláez, R. Delgado-Buscalioni, L. Liang, X. Liu, and D. Jaque, “Upconverting Nanorockers for Intracellular Viscosity Measurements During Chemotherapy,” Advanced Biosystems 2019, 3, 1900082.

[158] Y. Wu, J. Xu, E. T. Poh, L. Liang, H. Liu, J. K. W. Yang, C.-W. Qiu, R. A. L. Vallée, X. Liu, “Upconversion Superburst with Sub-2 μs Lifetime,” Nature Nanotechnology 2019, 14, 1110-1115.

[157] X. Zeng, S. Chen, A. Weitemier, S. Han, A. Blasiak, A. Prasad, K. Zheng, Z. Yi, B. Luo, I. H. Yang, N. Thakor, C. Chai, K. L. Lim, T. J. McHugh, A. H. All, X. Liu, “Visualization of Intra-neuronal Motor Protein Transport through Upconversion Microscopy,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2019, 58, 9262-9268. 

[156] X. Liu, Z. Yi, X. Qin, H. Liu, W. Huang, X. Liu, “Tuning Long‐Lived Mn (II) Upconversion Luminescence through Alkaline‐Earth Metal Doping and Energy‐Level Tailoring,” Advanced Optical Materials 7, 2019, 1900519.

[155] L. Gu, H. Shi, L. Bian, M. Gu, K. Ling, X. Wang, … Z. An, X. Liu, H. Wang, “Colour-tunable ultra-long organic phosphorescence of a single-component molecular crystal,” Nature Photonics 2019, 13(6), 406.

[154] L. Liang, D. B. Teh, N. D. Dinh, W. Chen, Q. Chen, Y. Wu, … N. V. Thakor, A. H. All, X. Liu, “Upconversion amplification through dielectric superlensing modulation,” Nature communications 2019, 10(1), 1391.

[153] C. Shen, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. An, K. Y. Loh, P. Zhang, & X. Liu, “Recent Advances in the Catalytic Synthesis of 4-Quinolones,” Chem 2019, 5(5), 1059-1107. 

[152] X. Qin, J. Xu, Y. Wu, X. Liu, “Energy-Transfer Editing in Lanthanide-Activated Upconversion Nanocrystals: A Toolbox for Emerging Applications,” ACS Central Science 2019, 5, 29–42.

[151] L. Liang, X. Qin, K. Zheng, X. Liu, “Energy Flux Manipulation in Upconversion Nanosystems,” Accounts of Chemical Research 2019, 52, 228–236.

[150] H. Liu, J. Xu, H. Wang, Y. Liu, Q. Ruan, Y. Wu, X. Liu, J. K. W. Yang, “Tunable Resonator‐Upconverted Emission (TRUE) Color Printing and Applications in Optical Security” Advanced Materials 2019, 31, 1807900.

[149] H. Cao, H. Jiang, H. Feng, J. M. C. Kwan, X. Liu, J. Wu, “Photo-induced Decarboxylative Heck-Type Coupling of Unactivated Aliphatic Acids and Terminal Alkenes in the Absence of Sacrificial Hydrogen Acceptors,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018, 140, 16360–16367.

[148] S. Wu, H. Xia, J. Xu, X. Sun, X. Liu, “Manipulating Luminescence of Light Emitters by Photonic Crystals,” Advanced Materials 2018, 30, 1803362.

[147] Q. Zhang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, W. Shang, L. Liu, M. Wang, H. Yu, L. Deng, G. Qi, L. Wang, S. Han, B. Hu, Q. Kang, Y. Liu, M. Yi, Y. Ma, W. Yang, J. Feng, X. Liu, H. Sun, W. Huang, “Negative differential resistance and hysteresis in graphene-based organic light-emitting devices”, Journal of Material Chemistry C 2018, 6, 1926-1932.

[146] P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, Y. Arita, X. Liu, D. Jaque, K. Dholakia, “The Temperature of an Optically Trapped, Rotating Microparticle,” ACS Photonics 2018, 5, 3772–3778.

[145] Q. Chen, J. Wu, X. Qu, B. Huang, J. Almutlaq, A. A. Zhumekenov, X. Guan, S. Han, L. Liang, Z. Yi, J. Li, X. Xie, Y. Wang, Y. Li, D. Fan, D. The, A. All, O. Mohammed, O. Bakr, T. Wu, M. Bettinelli, H. Yang, W. Huang, X. Liu, “All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystal Scintillator,” Nature 2018, 561, 88–93.

[144] L. Gu, H. Shi, M. Gu, K. Ling, H. Ma, S. Cai, L. Song, C. Ma, H. Li, G. Xing, X. Hang, J. Li, Y. Gao, W. Yao, Z. Shuai, Z. An*, X. Liu*, W. Huang*, “Dynamic Ultralong Organic Phosphorescence by Photo‐activation,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2018, 10.1002/anie.201712381.

[143] S. Wen, J. Zhou, K. Zheng, A. Bednarkiewicz*, X. Liu*, D. Jin*, “Advances in highly doped upconversion nanoparticles,” Nature Communications 2018, 9, 2415.

[142] P. Rodriguez-Sevila, T. Lee, L. Liang, P. Haro-González, G. Lifante, X. Liu, D. Jaque, “Light-Activated Upconverting Spinners,” Advanced Optical Materials 2018, 6, 1800161-1800167.

[141] K. Zheng, S. Han, X. Zeng, Y. Wu, S. Song, H. Zhang, X. Liu, “Rewritable optical memory through high-registry orthogonal upconversion,” Advanced Materials, 2018, 30, 1801726.

[140] Y. Wang, K. Zheng, S. Song, D. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Liu, “Remote manipulation of upconversion luminescence,” Chemical Society Reviews 2018, 47, 6473-6485. 

[139] D. Wu, Q. Su, Y. Li, C. Zhang, X. Qin, Y. Y. Liu, W. S. Xi, Y. Gao, A. Cao, X. Liu, H. Wang, “Toxicity assessment and mechanistic investigation of engineered monoclinic VO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 9736-9746.

[138] H. Schäfer, K. Küpper, M. Schmidt, K. Müller-Buschbaum, J. Stangl, D. Daum, M. Steinhart, C. Schulz-Kölbel, W. Han, J. Wollschläger, U. Krupp, P. Hou, X. Liu, “Steel-based electrocatalysts for efficient and durable oxygen evolution in acidic media,” Catalysis Science & Technology, 2018, 8, 2104-2116.

[137] L. Liang, X. Liu, “Photon upconversion: nanocrystal feels the heat,” Nature Photonics, 2018, 12, 124-130.

[138] K. Loh, X. Liu, “Gapping into ultrahigh surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” ACS Central Science, 2018, 4, 137-139.

[136] S. Chen, Z. W. Adam, X. Zeng, L. He, X. Wang, Y. Tao, A. J. Huang, Y. Hashimotodani, M. Kano, H. Iwasaki, L. K. Parajuli, S. Okabe., D. B. L. Teh, A. H. All, I. Tsutsui-Kimura, K. F. Tanaka, X. Liu, T. J. McHugh, “Near-infrared deep brain stimulation via upconversion nanoparticle-mediated optogenetics,” Science, 2018, 359, 679-684.

[135] D. B. L. The, A. Prasad, W. Jiang, M. Z. Ariffin, S. Khanna, A. Belorkar, L. Wong, X. Liu*, A. H. All*, “Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Neuroprotective aspects of Human Reactive Astrocytes induced by Interleukin 1β,” Scientific Reports 2017, 7, 13988.

[134] D. B. L. Teh, S. M. Chua, A. Prasad, I. Kakkos, W. Jiang, Y. Mu, X. Liu, A. H. All, “Neuroprotective assessment of prolonged local hypothermia post-contusive spinal cord injury in rodent model,” The Spine Journal 2017, S1529-9430, 31117-8.

[132] N. Liu, S. Huang, X. Liu, H.-K. Luo, T. S. A. Hor, “Self-assembled [2]catenane in trapezoidal metallacycles with [Cp*Ir]-corners,” Chemical Communications 2017, 53, 12802.

[131] H. S. Quah, V. Nalla, K. Zheng, C. A. Lee, X. Liu, J. J. Vittal, “Tuning Two-Photon Absorption Cross Section In Metal Organic Frameworks,” Chemistry of Materials 2017, 29, 7424-7430.

[130] Q. Miao, C. Xie, Z. Xu, L. Yan, H. Duan, X. Liu, J. V. Jorkest, K. Pu, “Molecular afterglow imaging with bright biodegradable polymer nanoparticles,” Nature Biotechnology 2017, 35, 1102–1110.

[129] X. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Li, Z. Yi, R. Deng, L. Liang, X. Xie, D. T. B. Loong, S. Song, D. Fan, A. H. All, H. Zhang, L. Huang, X. Liu, “Binary temporal upconversion codes of Mn2+-activated nanoparticles for multilevel anti-counterfeiting,” Nature Communications 2017, 8, 899.

[128] A. Prasad, D. B. L. Teh, A. Blasiak, C. Chai, Y. Wu, P. M. Gharibani, I.-H. Yang, T. T. Phan, K. L. Lim, H. Yang, X. Liu*, A. H. All*, “Static Magnetic Field Stimulation Enhances Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors,” Scientific Reports 2017, 7, 6743.

[127] X. Mou, S. Wang, X. Liu, W. Guo, J. Li, J. Qiu, X. Yu, Z. Wang*, X. Liu*, Z. Geng*, H. Liu*, “Static pressure-induced neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells,” Nanoscale 2017, 9, 10031-10037.

[126] Y. Wang, K. Yao, X. Qin, M. S. Mirshekarloo, X. Liu, F. E. H. Tay, High Piezoelectric Performance and Phase Transition in Stressed Lead-Free (1–x)(K, Na)(Sb, Nb)O3-x(Bi, Na, K)ZrO3 Thin Films, Advanced Electronic Materials 2017, 3, 1700033.

[125] L. Wu, Z. Wang, Y. Long, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Wang, W. Wang, S. Song, X. Liu, H. Zhang, “Multishelled NixCo3-XO4 Hollow Microspheres Derived from Bimetal-Organic Frameworks as Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries, Small 2017, 13, 1604270.

[124] X. Liu, X. Li, X. Qin, X. Xie, L. Huang, X. Liu, “Hedgehog-Shaped Upconversion Crystals: Controlled Growth and Molecular Sensing at Single-Particle Level,” Advanced Materials 2017, 29, 1702315.

[123] S. Song, X. Liu, J. Li, J. Pan, F. Wang, Y. Xing, X. Wang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, “Confining the Nucleation of Pt to In Situ Form (Pt-Enriched Cage)@CeO2 Core@Shell Nanostructure as Excellent Catalysts for Hydrogenation Reactions,” Advanced Materials 2017, 29, 1700495.

[122] Q. Chen, X. Xie, B. Huang, L. Liang, S. Han, Z. Yi, Y. Wang, Y. Li, D. Fan, L. Huang, X. Liu, “Confining Excitation Energy in Er3+-Sensitized Upconversion Nanocrystals through Tm3+-Mediated Transient Energy Trapping,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2017, 56, 7605 –7609.

[121] S. Han, A. Samanta, X. Xie, L. Huang, J. Peng, S. J. Park, D. T. B. Loong, Y.-D. Choi, Y.-T. Chang, A. H. All, Y. Yang, B. Xing, X. Liu, “Gold and Hairpin DNA Functionalization of Upconversion Nanocrystals for Imaging and In Vivo Drug Delivery,” Advanced Materials 2017, 29, 1700244.

[120] X. Qin, X. Liu, W. Huang, M. Bettinelli, X. Liu, “Lanthanide-Activated Phosphors Based on 4f-5d Optical Transitions: Theoretical and Experimental Aspects,” Chemical Reviews 2017, 117, 4488–4527.

[119] F. Li, H. Wang, D. Kufer, L. Liang, W. Yu, E. Alarousu, C. Ma, Y. Li, Z. Liu, C. Liu, N. Wei, F. Wang, L. Chen, O. F. Mohammed, A. Fratalocchi, X. Liu, G. Konstantatos, T. Wu, “Ultrahigh Carrier Mobility Achieved in Photo-responsive Hybrid Perovskite Films via Coupling with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Advanced Materials 2017, 29, 1602432.

[118] J. Peng*, A. Samanta, X. Zeng, S. Han, L. Wang, D. Su, D.T.B. Loong, N.-Y. Kang, S.-J. Park, A. H. All, W. Jiang, L. Yuan*, X. Liu*, and Y.-T. Chang*, “Real-time in vivo Hepatotoxicity Monitoring through Chromophore-conjugated Upconversion Nanoprobes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2017, 56, 4165-4169.

[117] L. Liang; X. Liu; “STED Nanoscopy Goes Low Power,” Chem 2017, 2, 331-333. 

[116] R. Deng, J. Wang, R. Chen, W. Huang, X. Liu, “Enabling Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Large Nanocrystals through Energy Migration,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2016, 138, 15972–15979. 

[115] P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, Y. Zhang, N. de Sousa, M. I. Marqués, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, D. Jaque, X. Liu, P. Haro-González, “Optical Torques on Upconverting Particles for Intracellular Microrheometry,” Nano Letters 2016, 16, 8005–8014.

[114] S. Han, X. Qin, B. Zhou, Z. An, L. Liang, Y. Zhu, Y. Han, W. Huang, Xiaogang Liu, “Multicolor Synthesis in Lanthanide-Doped Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange,” Nature Communications 2016, 7, 13059; doi: 10.1038/ncomms13059.

[113] L. Liang, X. Xie, D. T. B. Loong, A. H. All, L. Huang, X. Liu, “Designing Upconversion Nanocrystals Capable of 745 nm Sensitization and 803 nm Emission for Deep‐Tissue Imaging,” Chemistry: A European Journal 2016, 22, 10801-10807.

[112] C. D. S. Brites, X. Xie, M. L. Debasu, X. Qin, R. Chen, W. Huang, J. Rocha, X. Liu*, L. D. Carlos*, “Instantaneous Ballistic Velocity of Suspended Brownian Nanocrystals Measured by upconversion nanothermometry,” Nature Nanotechnology 2016, 11, 851-856.

[111] Y. Wang, R. Deng, X. Xie, L. Huang*, X. Liu*, “Nonlinear Spectral and Lifetime Management in Upconversion Nanoparticles by Controlling Energy Distribution,” Nanoscale 2016, 8, 6666-6673.

[110] V. Ananikov, X. Liu, U. Schneider, “Catalysis to Build Molecular Complexity with Atomic Precision,” Chemistry: An Asian Journal 2016, 11, 328-329.

[109] Y. Zhang, L. Huang, X. Liu*, “Unraveling Epitaxial Habits in NaLnF4 System for Color Multiplexing at the Single-Particle Level,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2016, 55, 5718-5722.

[108] J. Xu, C. Shen, X. Zhu, P. Zhang*, M. J. Ajitha, K.-W. Huang*, Z. An, X. Liu*, “Remote C−H Activation of Quinolines through Copper-Catalyzed Radical Cross-Coupling,” Chemistry: An Asian Journal 2016, 11, 882-892.

[107] V. Ananikov,* X. Liu,* U. Schneider*, “Catalysis to Build Molecular Complexity with Atomic Precision,” Chemistry: An Asian Journal 2016, 11, 328 – 329.

[106] P. Rodríguez-Sevilla, Y. Zhang, P. Haro-González, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, F. Jaque, J. G. Sole, X. Liu, D. Jaque*, “Thermal Scanning at Cellular Level by an Optically Trapped Upconverting Fluorescent Particle,” Advanced Materials, 2016, 28, 2421-2426.

[105] D. Jaque, C. Richard, B. Viana, K. Soga, X. Liu, J. G. Solé, “Inorganic Nanoparticles for Optical Bio-imaging,”

Submitted to Advances in Optics and Photonics 2016, 8, 1-103. 

[104] X. Zheng, Y. Lu, J. Zhao, Y. Zhang, W. Ren, D. Liu, J. Lu, J. A. Piper, R. C. Leif, X. Liu, D. Jin, “High-precision Pinpointing of Luminescent Targets in Encoder-assisted Scanning Microscopy Allowing High-speed Quantitative Analysis,” Analytical Chemistry 2016, 88, 1312-1319.

[103] X. Ai, C. J. H. Ho, J. Aw, A. B. E. Attia, J. Mu, Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Liu, H. Chen, M. Gao, X. Chen, E. K. L. Yeow, G. Liu*, M. Olivo*, B. Xing*, “In vivo Covalent Cross-linking of Photon-converted Rare-earth Nanostructures for Tumor Localization and Theranostics,” Nature Communications 2016, 7, 10432; doi:10.1038/ncomms10432.

[102] J. Peng, C. L. Teoh, X. Zeng, L. Wang, W. Xu, A. Samanta, D. Su, X. Liu, L. Yuan, Y.-T. Chang*, “Development of highly selective, sensitive and fast response upconversion luminescent platform for hydrogen sulfide detection,” Advanced Functional Materials 2016, 26, 191-199.

[101] D. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Qin, X. Liu*, D. Jin*, “Three-dimensional Controlled Growth of Monodisperse sub-50 nm Heterogeneous Nanocrystals,” Nature Communications 2016, 7, 10254; doi: 10.1038/ncomms10254.

[100] Z. Mi, Y. Zhang, S. K. Vanga, C.-B. Chen, H. Q. Tan, F. Watt, X. Liu*, A. A. Bettiol*, “Subwavelength Imaging through Ion-beam-induced Upconversion,” Nature Communications 2015, 6, 8832; doi: 10.1038/ncomms9832

[99] X. Li, X. Liu, D. M. Chevrier, X. Qin, X. Xie, S. Song, H. Zhang*, P. Zhang*, X. Liu*, “Energy Migration Upconversion in Mn2+-doped Nanoparticles,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2015, 54, 13312-13317.

[98] A. T. Hor*, X. Liu*, X. Loh, H. Zhang “Celebrating 50 Years of Chemistry in Singapore,” ChemPlusChem, 2015, 80, 1192-1194.

[97] R. Deng, X. Liu*, “Supramolecular Polymers: Chain Growth in Control,” Nature Chemistry 2015, 7, 472-473 (News & Views).

[96] M. Bettinelli*, L. Carlos*, X. Liu*, “Lanthanide-doped Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Physics Today 2015, 68, 38-44.

[95] B. Zhou, B. Shi, D. Jin*, X. Liu*, “Controlling Photon Upconversion in Nanocrystals,” Nature Nanotechnology 2015, 10, 924-936.

[94] J. Tian, X. Zeng, X. Xie, S. Han, O.-W. Liew, Y.-T. Chen, L. Wang*, X. Liu*, “Intracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Deprivation through Lanthanide-doped Nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015, 137, 6550-6558.

[93] B. Zhou, W. Yang, S. Han, Q. Sun, X. Liu*, “Photon Upconversion through Tb3+-Mediated Interfacial Energy Transfer,” Advanced Materials 2015, 27, 6208-6212.

[92] Z. An, C. Zheng, Y. Tao, R. Chen*, H. Shi, T. Chen, Z. Wang, H. Li, R. Deng, X. Liu*, W. Huang*, “Stabilizing excited triplet state for ultralong organic phosphorescence,” Nature Materials 2015, 14, 685-690.

[91] H. Xu, Q. Sun, Z. An, Y. Wei, X. Liu, “Electroluminescence from europium(III) complexes,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews 2015, 293–294, 228-249.

[90] X. Liu, R. Deng, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, H. Chang, L. Huang, X. Liu, “Probing the nature of upconversion nanocrystals: instrumentation matters,” Chemical Society Reviews 2015, 44, 1479-1508 (Invited Review Article).

[89] X. Liu, C. Yan, J. A. Capobianco, “Photon upconversion Nanomaterials,” Chemical Society Reviews, 2015, 44, 1299-1301 (Editorial for special issue on upconversion nanomaterials).

[88] R. Deng, F. Qin, R. Chen, W. Huang, M. Hong, X. Liu, “Temporal full-color tuning through non-steady-state upconversion, ” Nature Nanotechnology, 2015, 10, 237-242. 

[87] J. Peng, W. Xu, C. L. Teoh, S. Han, B. Kim, A. Samanta, J. C. Er, L. Wang, L. Yuan, X. Liu, Y-T. Chang, “High-efficiency in Vitro and in Vivo Detection of Zn2+ by Dye-Assembled Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015, 137, 2336-2342.

[86] B. Li, X. Ge, F. W. T. Goh, T. S. A. Hor, D. Geng, G. Du, Z. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Liu, Y. Zong, “Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries,” Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 1830-1838.

[85] C. Shen, P. Zhang*, Q. Sun, S. Bai, T. S. A. Hor*, X. Liu*, “Recent advances in C–S bond formation via C–H bond functionalization and decarboxylation,” Chemical Society Reviews 2015, 44, 291-314 (Invited Review Article).

[84] W. Zhou, Y. Guan, D. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Liu, H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Liu, H. Liu, S. Chen, “PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 Heterostructured Nanobelts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity,” Chemistry– an Asian Journal 2014, 9, 1648-1654.

[83] G. Du, Z. Liu*, S. W. Tay, X. Liu*, A. Yu, “Mesoporous Spherical Li4Ti5O12 as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Chemistry– an Asian Journal 2014, 9, 2514-2518.

[82] W. Yang, X. Li, D. Chi, H. Zhang*, X. Liu*, “Lanthanide-doped Upconversion Materials: Emerging Applications for Photovoltaics and Photocatalysis,” Nanotechnology 2014, 25, 482001. (Invited Review Article)

[81] S. Han, R. Deng, X. Xie, X. Liu*, “Enhancing Luminescence in Lanthanide-doped Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2014, 53 (44), 11702-11715 (Invited Review Article) 

[80] Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, R. Deng, J. Tian, Y. Zong, D. Jin, X. Liu*, “Multicolor Barcoding in a Single Upconversion Crystal,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014, 136, 4893-4896.

[79] F. Wang, R. Deng, X. Liu*, “Preparation of Core-shell NaGdF4 Nanoparticles Doped with Luminescent Lanthanide ions,” Nature Protocols 2014, 9, 1634-1644.

[78] F. Wang, X. Liu*, “Multicolor Tuning of Lanthanide-doped Nanoparticles by Single Wavelength Excitation,” Accounts of Chemical Research 2014, 47, 1378-1385.

[77] H. Xu*, R. Chen, Q. Sun, Q. Su, W. Lai, W. Huang*, X. Liu*, “Recent progress in Metal–organic Complexes for Optoelectronic Applications,” Chemical Society Reviews 2014, 43, 3259-3302 (Invited Review Article).

[76] R. Deng, X. Liu*, “Optical Multiplexing: Tunable Lifetime Nanocrystals,” Nature Photonics 2014, 8, 10-12 (News and Views article).

[75] S. Han, X. Liu*, “The Quest for Photocatalytic Systems with Broadband Solar Absorption,” Small 2014, 10, 1243-1244 (Invited Research Highlight).

[74] J. Wang, R. Deng, M. A. MacDonald, B. Chen, J. Yuan, F. Wang, D. Chi, T. S. A. Hor, P. Zhang, G. Liu, Y. Han, X. Liu*, “Enhancing Multiphoton Upconversion through Energy Clustering at Sublattice Level,” Nature Materials 2014, 13, 157-162.

[73] Y. Zhang, X. Liu*, “Shining a Light on Upconversion,” Nature Nanotechnology 2013, 8, 702-703 (News and Views article).

[72] J. Gao, K. Ye, M. He, W. Xiong, W. Cao, Z. Lee, Y. Wang, F. Huo, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, “Tuning Metal-Carboxylate Coordination in Crystalline Metal-Organic Frameworks through Surfactant Media,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry 2013, 206, 27-31.

[71] X. Xie, N. Gao, R. Deng, Q. Sun, Q.-H. Xu, X. Liu*, “Mechanistic Investigation of Photon Upconversion in Nd3+-Sensitized Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2013, 135, 12608-12611.

[70] Z. Wang, G. Shimon, X. Liu, C. V. Thompson, C. A. Ross, W. K. Choi, A. O. Adeyeye, “Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Large-area Ferromagnetic Cylindrical Nanoshell and Nanocup Arrays,” Journal of Applied Physics 2013, 113, 214301.

[69] X. Xie, R. Deng, F. Liu, W. Xu, S. F. Y. Li*, X. Liu*, “Colorimetric Anticancer Drug Detection by Gold Nanoparticle-based DNA Interstrand Cross-Linking,” Analytical Methods 2013, 5, 1116.

[68] Y. Yang, B. Velmurugan, X. Liu*, B. Xing*, “NIR Photoresponsive Crosslinked Upconverting Nanocarriers toward Selective Intracellular Drug Release,” Small 2013, 9, 2937-2944.

[67] G. Du, X. Liu*, Y. Zong, T. S. A. Hor, A. Yu, Z. Liu*, “Co3O4 Nanoparticle-Modified MnO2 Nanotube Bifunctional Oxygen Cathode Catalysts for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries,” Nanoscale 2013, 5, 4657-4661.  

[66] J. Du, L. Jiang, Q. Shao, X. Liu, R. S. Marks, J. Ma, X. Chen, “Colorimetric Detection of Mercury Ions Based on Plasmonic Nanoparticles, Small 2013, 9, 1467 (Review).

[65] Q. Tian, J. Hu*, Y. Zhu, R. Zou, Z. Chen, S. Yang, R. Li, Q. Su, Y. Han, X. Liu*, “Sub-10 nm Fe3O4@Cu9S8 Core-shell Nanoparticles for Dual-modal Imaging and Photothermal Therapy,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2013, 135, 8571.

[64] X. Huang, S. Han, W. Huang*, X. Liu*, “Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiency: the Search for Luminescent Materials as Spectral Converters,” Chemical Society Reviews 2013, 42,173-201 (Invited Review Article).

[63] Y. Yang, F. Liu, X. Liu*, B. Xing*, “NIR Light Controlled Photorelease of siRNA and its Targeted Intracellular Delivery Based on Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2013, 5, 231-238.

[62] L. T. Su, S. K. Karuturi, J. Luo, L. Liu, X. Liu, J. Guo, T. C. Sum, R. Deng, H. J. Fan, X. Liu*, A. I. Y. Tok*, “Photon Upconversion in Heteronanostructured Photoanodes for Enhanced Near-Infrared Light Harvesting,” Advanced Materials 2013, 25, 1603-1607. 

[61] Q. Su, S. Han, X. Xie, H. Zhu, H. Chen, C. K. Chen, R. S. Liu, X. Chen, F. Wang*, X. Liu*, “The Effect of Surface Coating on Energy Migration-Mediated Upconversion,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012, 134, 20849-20857. 

[60] W. Sun, F. Cao, Y. Liu, X. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Yuan, “Nanoporous LiMn2O4 Nanosheets with exposed 111 facets as cathodes for highly reversible lithium-ion batteries”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2012, 22, 20952-20957. 

[59] X. Huang, X. Liu*, “Finding a Single Lanthanide Ion through Upconversion”, ChemPhyChem: A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry 2012, 13, 4095-4097 (Invited Research highlight). 

[58] H. Son, J. H. Lee, Y-R. Kim, I. S. Lee, S. Han, X. Liu*, J. Jaworski*, J. H. Jung*, “A BODIPY-Functionalized Biometallic Probe for Sensitive and Selective Color-fluorometric Chemiosensing of Hg2+,” Analyst 2012, 137, 3914-3916. 

[57] X. Xie, X. Liu*, “Photonics: Upconversion Goes Broadband,” Nature Materials 2012, 11, 842-843 (News and Views article).

[56] Q. Zhang*, X. Liu*, “Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Goes Solid,” Small 2012, 8, 3711-3713 (Invited Research highlight).

[55] C. Shen, F. Shen, G. Zhou, H. Xia, X. Chen, X. Liu, P. Zhang, “Novel Carbohydrate-derived Prolinamide as a Highly Efficient, Recoverable Catalyst for Direct Aldol Reactions in Water,” Catalysis Communications 2012, 26, 6-10.

[54] C. Shen, H. Xia, H. Yan, X. Chen, S. Ranjit, X. Xie, D. Tan, R. Lee, Y. Yang, B. Xing, K.-W. Huang, P. Zhang*, X. Liu*, “A concise, Efficient Synthesis of Sugar-based Benzothiazoles through Chemoselective Intramolecular C-S Coupling,” Chemical Science 2012, 3, 2388-2393.

[53] X. Xie, W. Xu, X. Liu*, “Improving Colorimetric Assays through Enzyme-Assisted Gold Nanoparticle Amplification,” Accounts of Chemical Research 2012, 45, 1511-1520(Invited Review Article).

[52] W. Xu, X. Xie, D. Li, Z. Yang, T. Li, X. Liu*, “Ultrasensitive Colorimetric DNA Detection using a Combination of Rolling Circle Amplification and Nicking Endonuclease-Assisted Nanoparticle Amplification (NEANA),” Small 2012, 8, 1846-1850.

[51] X. Liu, X. Liu*, “Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Kinetic Control Matters,” Angewandte Chemie 2012, 124, 3367-3369; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, 3311-3313 (Invited Research highlight).

[50] G. Lu, S. Li, B. G. Hauser, X. Qi, Y. Wang, X. Wang, S. Han, X. Liu, J. S. Duchene, H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Ma, S. C. J. Loo, W. Wei, Y. Yang, O. K. Farha, J. T. Hupp, F. Huo, “Imparting Functionality to a Metal-Organic Framework Material by Controlled Nanoparticle Encapsulation,” Nature Chemistry 2012, 4, 310-316.

[49] Y. Yang, Q. Shao, R. Deng, X. Teng, C. Wang, K. Cheng, Z. Cheng, L. Huang, Z. Liu, X. Liu*, B. Xing*, “In Vitro and In Vivo Uncaging and Bioluminescence Imaging through Photocaged Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Angewandte Chemie 2012, 124, 3179-3183; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, 3125-3129.

[48] R. Deng, X. Xie, M. Vendrell, Y.-T. Chang, X. Liu*, “Intracellular Glutathione Detection using MnO2-Nanosheet-Modified Upconversion Nanoparticles,Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011, 133, 20168-20171.

[47] S. Ranjit, R. Lee, D. Heryadi, C. Shen, J. Wu, P. Zhang, K. Huang, X. Liu*, “Copper-Mediated C-H Activation/C-S Cross-Coupling of Heterocycles with Thiols,” Journal of Organic Chemistry 2011, 76, 8999-9007. 

[46] F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, X. Liu*, “Energy Migration Upconversion in Lanthanide-Doped Core-Shell Nanocrystals, ” Nature Materials 2011, 10, 968-973 (Highlighted in News and Views in Nature Materials, MRS Bulletin, Nature Middle East, and Nanomedicine). 

[45] X. Su, X. Liu, “The Plasmonic Ruler Goes 3D!,” ChemPhyChem: A European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry 2011, 12, 2707-2708 (Invited research highlight).

[44] J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Liu*, “Single-Band Upconversion Emission in Lanthanide-Doped KMnF3 Nanocrystals,” Angewandte Chemie 2011, 123, 10553-10556; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2011, 50, 10369-10372.  

[43] H. Wang, W. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Yang, X. Xie, T. Li, X. Liu*, “EcorRI-Modified Gold Nanoparticles for Dual-Mode Colorimetric Detection of Magnesium and Pyrophosphate Ions,” Small 2011, 7, 1987-1992.

[42] X. Xue, F. Wang, X. Liu*, “Emerging Functional Nanomaterials for Therapeutics,” Journal of Materials Chemistry 2011, 21, 13107-13127 (Invited Review Article).

[41] L. K. Tan, X. Liu, H. Gao, “Vertically Standing, Highly Ordered, and Dimension and Morphology Controllable TiO2 Nanotube Arrays via Template-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition,” Journal of Materials Chemistry 2011, 21, 11084-11087. 

[40] Y. Liu, F. Boey, L. L. Lao, H. Zhang, X. Liu, Q. Zhang,“Postchemistry of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Particles in Aqueous Solution: Metal-Cation Exchange,” Chemistry– An Asian Journal 2011, 6, 1004-1006.

[39] X. Xie, W. Xu, T. Li, X. Liu*, “Colorimetric Detection of HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Activity by Gold Nanoparticles,” Small 2011, 7, 1393-1396.

[38] S. Ranjit, X. Liu*, “Direct Arylation of Benzothiazoles and Benzoxazoles with Arylboronic Acids,” Chemistry: A European Journal 2011, 17, 1105-1108.

[37] H. Zhang, W. Xu, X. Liu, F. Stellacci, J. T. L. Thong, “Capturing a Single DNA Duplex under Near-Physiological Conditions,” Applied Physics Letters 2010, 97, 163702.

[36] H. Zhang, C.-L. Wong, Y. Hao, R. Wang, X. Liu, F. Stellacci, J. T. L. Thong, “Self-aligned Nanolithography by Selective Polymer Dissolution,” Nanoscale 2010, 2, 2302-2306.

[35] Y. Wang, G. Chen, M. Yang, G. Silber, S. Xing, L. H. Tan, F. Wang, Y. Feng, X. Liu, S. Li, H. Chen, “A systems approach towards the stoichiometry-controlled hetero-assembly of nanoparticle,” Nature Communications 2010, 1, 87.

[34] X. Liu*, “Aligned Conjugated Polymers Standing Upright,” Small 2010, 6, 2333-2335 (Research highlight).

[33] S. Ranjit, Z. Duan, P. Zhang, X. Liu*, “Synthesis of Vinyl Sulfides by Copper-Catalyzed Decarboxylative C-S Cross-Coupling,” Organic Letters 2010, 12, 4134-4136.

[32] J. Xu, H. Wang, C. Liu, Y. Yang, T. Chen, Y. Wang, F. Wang, X. Liu, B. Xing, H. Chen,“Mechanical Nano-Springs: Induced Coiling and Uncoiling of Ultrathin Au Nanowires,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010, 132, 11920-11922.

[31] F. Wang, J. Wang, X. Liu*, “Direct Evidence of Surface Quenching Effect on Size-Dependent Luminescence of Upconversion Nanoparticles,” Angewandte Chemie 2010, 122, 7618-7622; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2010, 49, 7456-7460 (Selected as a Very Important Paper).

[30] N. Wu, J. Wang, D. N. Tafen, H. Wang, J.-G. Zheng, J. P. Lewis, X. Liu, S. S. Leonard, A. Manivannan, “Shape-Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Single-Crystalline Anatase TiO2 (101) Nanobelts,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010, 132, 6679-6685.

[29] Z. Duan, S. Ranjit, X. Liu*, “One-Pot Synthesis of Amine-Substituted Aryl Sulfides and Benzo[b]thiophene Derivatives,” Organic Letters 2010, 12, 2430-2433.

[28] F. Wang, D. Banerjee, Y. Liu, X. Chen, X. Liu*, “Upconversion Nanoparticles in Biological Labeling, Imaging and Therapy,” Analyst 2010, 135, 1839-1854 (Top cited article for 2010 and 2011).

[27] J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, X. Liu*, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Multicolor Upconversion Tuning,” Comptes rendus Chimie 2010, 13, 731-736.

[26] Q. Zhang, T. Sun, F. Cao, M. Li, M. Hong, J. Yuan, Q. Yan, H. H. Hng, N. Wu, X. Liu*, “Tuning the shape and thermoelectric property of PbTe nanocrystals by bismuth doping,” Nanoscale 2010, 2, 1256-1259.

[25] F. Wang, J. Wang, J. Xu, X. Xue, H. Chen and X. Liu*, “Tunable Upconversion Emissions from Lanthanide‐doped Monodisperse β‐NaYF4 Nanoparticles,” Spectroscopy Letters 2010, 43, 400-405 (Special Edition: Spectroscopy of Lanthanide Materials II).

[24] F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong and X. Liu*,  Simultaneous Phase and Size Control of Upconversion Nanocrystals through Lanthanide Doping,” Nature 2010, 463, 1061-1065 (Highlighted in Physics World magazine, Analyst with Insight Media, Lianhe Zhaobao, Materials Today, and Xinhua News). 

[23] C. Jiang, S. Ranjit, Z. Duan, Y. L. Zhong, K. P. Loh, C. Zhang and X. Liu*, “Nanocontact-induced Catalytic Activation in Palladium Nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2009, 1, 391-394.

[22] H. Zhang, R. J. Barsotti, C.-L. Wong, X. Xue, X. Liu, F. Stellacci and J. T. L. Thong, “Polymer-Protected Sub-2-nm-Nanogap Fabrication for Biological Sensing in Near-Physiological Conditions,” Small 2009, 5, 2797-2801.

[21] X. Xue, W. Xu, F. Wang and X. Liu*, “Multiplex Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing by Nanoparticle-Coupled DNA-Templated Reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2009, 131, 11668-11669. 

[20] X. Liu, “Zinc Oxide Nano- and Microfabrication from Coordination-Polymer Templates,” Angewandte Chemie  2009, 121, 3062–3065; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2009, 48, 3018-3021 (Invited research highlight). 

[19] Z. Duan, S. Ranjit, P. Zhang, X. Liu*, “Synthesis of Aryl Sulfides via Decarboxylative C-S Cross-Couplings,” Chemistry: A European Journal 2009, 15, 3666-3669.


[18] W. Xu, X. Xue, T. Li, H. Zeng and X. Liu*, “Ultrasensitive and Selective Colorimetric DNA Detection by Nicking Endonuclease-Assisted Nanoparticle Amplification,” Angewandte Chemie, 2009, 121, 6981–6984; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2009, 48, 6849-6852 (Selected as a Very Important Paper and featured as a journal inside-cover article). 

[17] F. Wang and X. Liu*, “Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanocrystals,” Chemical Society Reviews 2009, 38, 976-989 (Invited Review Article).

[16] C. Jiang, F. Wang, N. Wu, X. Liu*, “Up- and Down-Conversion Cubic Zirconia and Hafnia Nanobelts,” Advanced Materials 2008, 20, 4826-4829 (Selected as a Very Important Paper contribution)

[15] F. Wang and X. Liu*, “Upconversion Multicolor Fine-Tuning: Visible to Near-Infrared Emission from Lanthanide-Doped NaYF4 Nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130, 5642-5643.

[14] X. Xue, F. Wang and X. Liu*, “One-Step, Room Temperature, Colorimetric Detection of Mercury (Hg2+) Using DNA/Nanoparticle Conjugates,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130 3244-3245 (Selected by the editor and highlighted in JACS Select #5 issue: Chemistry at the Nano-Bio Interface).

[13] F. Wang, X. Xue and X. Liu*, “Multicolor Tuning of (Ln, P)-Doped YVO4 Nanoparticles by Single Wavelength Excitation,” Angewandte Chemie, 2008, 120, 920-923; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2008, 47, 906-909 (Featured as a journal inside-cover article). 

[12] J. Yuan, X. Liu, O. Akbulut, J. Hu, S. Suib, J. Kong, F. Stellacci, “Recyclable, Thermal-Stable, Selective, Superwetting Nanowire Membranes,” Nature Nanotechnology 2008, 3, 332-336 (Highlighted in The Straits Times, The Sunday Times (UK), Yahoo News, MIT Technology Reviews, Nature News, Discovery Channel, and NewScientist). 

Before Joining NUS

[11] X. Liu, N. Wu, B. H. Wunsch, R. J. Barsotti, F. Stellacci, “Shape-controlled Growth of Micrometer-sized Gold Crystals by a Slow Reduction Method, ” Small 2006, 2, 1046-1050.

[10] X. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. K. Goswami, J. S. Okasinski, K. Salaita, P. Sun, M. J. Bedzyk, C. A. Mirkin, “The controlled Evolution of a Single Crystal,” Science 2005, 307, 1763-1766.

[9] M. V. Ovchinnikov, A. M. Brown, X. Liu, C. A. Mirkin, L. N. Zakharov, A. L. Rheingold, “Heteromacrocycles Generated via the Weak-Link Approach,” Inorganic Chemistry 2004, 43, 8233-8235.

[8] J.-M. Nam, S. Han, K. Lee, X. Liu, M. Ratner, C. A. Mirkin, “Bioactive Protein Nanoarrays on Nickel Oxide Surfaces Formed by Dip-Pen Nanolithography,” Angewandte Chemie 2004, 116, 1266-1269; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2004, 43, 1246-1249.

[7] X. Liu, S. Guo, C. A. Mirkin, “Surface and Site-Specific Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Initiated by Dip-Pen Nanolithography,” Angewandte Chemie 2003, 115, 4933-4937; Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2003, 42, 4785-4788. 

[6] J.-M. Nam, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, C. A. Mirkin, “Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and C60 Encapsulated by a Molecular Macrocycle,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2003, 107, 4705-4710.

[5] L. Fu, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, V. P. Dravid, C. A. Mirkin, “Nanopatterning of Hard Magnetic Nanostructures via Dip-Pen Nanolithography and a Sol-Based Ink,” Nano Letters 2003, 3, 757-760.

[4] X. Liu, C. L. Stern, C. A. Mirkin, “Chemical Origami: Formation of Flexible 52-Membered Tetranuclear Metallacylces via a Molecular Square Formed from a Hemilabile Ligand,” Organometallics 2002, 21, 1017-1019.

[3] M. Su, X. Liu, S.-Y. Li, V. P. Dravid, C. A. Mirkin, C. A, “Moving Beyond Molecules: Patterning Solid-State Features via Dip-Pen Nanolithograpy with Sol-Based Inks,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2002, 124, 1560-1561.

[2] X. Liu, L. Fu, S. Hong, V. P. Dravid, C. A. Mirkin, “Arrays of Magnetic Nanoparticles via Dip-Pen Nanolithography,” Advanced Materials 2002, 14, 231-234.

[1] X. Liu, A. H. Eisenberg, C. L. Stern, C. A. Mirkin, “Flexible Redox-Active Binuclear Macrocycles Formed via the Weak-Link Approach and Novel Hemilabile Ligands with N,N,N’,N’-Tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Units,” Inorganic Chemistry 2001, 40, 2940-2941.


[1] Liu, X.; Zhang, H., “Scanning Probe Microscopy-Based Nanofabrication for Emerging Applications In Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy,” Mendez Vilas, A and Diaz, J. Eds, Formatex (2007).

[2] Zhou, X.; Liu, X.; Boey, F. Y. C.; Zhang, H., “Integrated Nanostructures and Nanodevices Fabricated by Dip-Pen Nanolithography In Topics in Multifunctional Biomaterials & Devices, ”Ashammakhi, N. Ed, index.html, Chapter 13, Pages 1-18 (2008)

[3] Wang, F.; Liu, X., “Rare-Earth Doped Upconversion Nanophosphors In Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology,” Nann, T. Ed, Elsevier (2010)


[1] Liu, X.; Chen, Q. “Perovskite-based Nanocrystal Scintillators,” SG Patent Application# 10201803272Y.

[2] Deng, R.; Yang, W.; Liu, X. “Colour-Tunable Upconversion Nanomaterials as Novel Biomarkers,” SG Patent Application# 10201407230W.

[3] Zhang, Y.; Liu, X.; “Multicolour upconversion microrods for anti-counterfeiting application,” US Provisional Application.

[4] Liu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, F.; “Single-Band Upconversion Nanomaterials for Product Identification and Anti-Counterfeiting Applications,” US Application# 61/522,329, 2013.

[5] Yuan, J.; Liu, X.; Kong, J.; Stellacci, F. “Recyclable, Thermal-Stable, Selective, Superwetting Nanowire Membranes,” US Provisional Application filed, 2007.

[6] Mirkin, C. A.; Liu, X.; Guo, S. “Surface and Site-specific Polymerization by Direct-write Lithography,” United States Patent 7326380.

[7] Mirkin, C. A.; Dravid, V. P.; Su, M.; Liu, X. “Patterning of Solid State Features by Direct Write Nanolithographic printing,” United States Patent 7,811,635 B2.

[8] Mirkin, C. A.; Dravid, V. P.; Liu, X.; Fu, L. “Patterning magnetic nanostructures,” United States Patent 7223438.



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